Types of culture
Culture is one of the important concepts in sociology. No human society can exist and develop without its culture. The main difference between the animal and human societies is of culture only. Culture is the set of patterns of human activity within a society or social group. Culture is how we act, think, and behave based on the shared values of our society. It is how we understand symbols, from language to hand gestures. It is everywhere, and we continually develop and define our culture on a daily basis. Studying culture is a big job. Social scientists, like anthropologists and sociologists, study culture to understand patterns of human behavior. While there are unlimited ways that people can express their culture, social scientists have developed two fundamental categories to define things produced by a society.
1. Material culture. Material culture consists of man-made objects such as furniture, automobiles, buildings, dams, bridges, roads and in fact, the physical matter converted and used by man. It is closely related with the external, mechanical as well as useful objects. It includes, technical and material equipment like a railways engines, publication machines, a locomotive, a radio etc. It includes our financial institutions, parliaments, insurance policies etc. and referred to as civilization.
2. Non-Material culture. The other category is nonmaterial culture, or the intangible things produced by a culture. In other words, the parts of culture you cannot touch, feel, taste, or hold. Common examples include social roles, ethics, beliefs, or even language. As a culture, Americans believe in equality. But you cannot hold equality, or make it out of macaroni noodles. Equality is something that does not actually exist; it is an idea that a culture produces about the treatment of people. This is nonmaterial culture, and it is just as big of an influence on our lives as material culture is.
3. Real culture. Real culture can be observed in our social life. We act upon on culture in our social life is real, its part which the people adopt in their social life is their real one. The whole one is never real because a part of it remains without practice. How far we set upon Islam is our real culture. Being a Muslims, Christian and related to another religion we do not follow Islam, Christianity etc. fully in our social life. It means the part of religion which we follow is our real culture.
4. Ideal culture. Ideal culture refers to practices and norms a culture is supposed to follow. This culture is explained in books, speeches, etc.
Types of culture